Thursday, June 16, 2016

How Emotions Shape Brand Perceptions

How Emotions Shape Brand Perceptions

A picture is worth a thousand words.’ Cliché, but true. In fact, it’s a cliché because it’s true. A battle between pictures and words is like one between Mike Tyson and Tiny Tim: the picture throws the bigger punch. Consider the following:

  • Two-thirds of all stimuli reaching the brain are visual (Zaltman, 1996).
  • Over 50 per cent of the brain is devoted to processing visual images (Bates and Cleese, 2001).
  • So 80 per cent of learning is visually based (American Optometric Association, 1991).

Marketers and brand owners, take note. Humans are extremely visual: we think largely in images, not words. What consumers and employees can’t actually see, or at the very least mentally envision, is most likely going to be lost on them. In ambiguous situations, most communication is non-verbal. Every day, we find ourselves in situations where the other party’s words and body language strike us as either opaque or conflicting. In those cases, what do we do? We rely more on non-verbal clues to evaluate the emotional state of the person speaking. Here are the exact statistics:

  • 55 per cent of communication comes through facial expressions.
  • 38 per cent of communication is through tone of voice.
  • Only 7 per cent of communication is through verbal exchange.

For anyone who wants to ‘get back to basics’, remember that nothing is more basic than non-verbal communication. Human beings have existed for over 500,000 years, but we’ve had the benefit of language for less than a quarter of that time. Moreover, because the rational and sensory parts of the brain aren’t adjacent neighbors, we’re not very good at verbally describing the details our senses detect. Ironically, that’s true despite the fact that our gut-level perceptions are largely shaped by sensory impressions.

Emotions Color Perceptions And Inhibit Change

We perceive matters in ways that emotionally protect our habits and biases.

The processing of ‘facts’ is, in essence, as much about the processing of one’s emotions as it is the processing of whatever external dynamics a person happens to be experiencing.

For instance, how do we ‘choose’ which brands to notice? Well, the first step in the perceptual process is that of screening, which often occurs subconsciously. We tend to screen out the unfamiliar (since paying attention to unfamiliar stimuli requires effort). Instead, we prefer to focus on what we already know and can relate to more easily.

Yes, at times people will analyze the ‘facts’ vigorously, but emotions are more basic and more dominant. Remember: we feel before we think, and those reactions are subconscious, immediate and inescapable. That’s why our reactions are often hard to verbalize. Our language skills reside in the rational brain, which may not even get invoked, because automatic reactions are primarily emotional in nature. As the psychologist Robert Zajonc notes, to say ‘I decided in favor of X’ often means nothing more nor less than ‘I liked X’ – and that’s good enough.

Why is instinctive preference good enough? The reason is that emotional judgements tend to be irrevocable. In terms of our basic emotional reactions, we’re never wrong about what we like or dislike. Zajonc notes, the factual reality of ‘The cat is black’ pales in contrast to the more intimate emotional reality of ‘I don’t like black cats.’

What’s the last stage in the sequence of perception? It’s retrieval, which is mediated by our emotions yet again. We tend to store and recall more readily those experiences that fit most comfortably into our existing mental frameworks. Therefore, memory is driven by preferences rooted in being at ease with our choice. Consumers and employees alike often defend their choices or actions based on details they previously deemed rationally irrelevant. Why? The explanation is that emotions are self-justifying and, therefore, emotional reactions can become totally separated from content.

Therefore, remember that what we’ve already seen will predispose us to what we can see the next time around because of our emotional investment in what’s familiar to us. While a company may believe it has a technically or functionally superior offer, consumers’ evaluations are in essence emotionally based. Objectivity doesn’t exist, because everything gets filtered and colored by emotional responses. The bottom line is that there’s almost always more commercial gain to be made by going with, rather than against, what people have already emotionally internalized and accepted.

Contributed to Branding Strategy Insider by: Dan Hill, excerpted from his book, Emotionomics, with permission from Kogan Page publishing.

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How Brand Assets Drive Brand Growth

How Brand Assets Drive Brand Growth

How can you accelerate your brand’s growth by identifying the elements in your brand identity that are distinctive and relevant brand assets? Let’s explore.

How Many People Have Their Hands On Your Brand?

It’s not easy being a brand builder. There’s a lot going on. Does any of the following sound familiar?

  • You lead or are a part of a cross-functional brand team that works together with marketing, sales, category management, supply chain, operations, R&D, legal, in collaboration with your communications, design, and digital agencies. So many ideas, and even more opinions. There are many influencers when it comes to the expression of your brand.
  • Your brand and its communications are likely working around the world, 24/7, in regions with different cultures and distinct need states and occasions; so the reality is thousands of colleagues, agency partners, retailers, and consumers are influencing how your brand’s identity is expressed on TV, online, out of home, and in-store around the world.
  • Each day thousands of people are influencing your brand identity, which itself is very complex. There are so many brand elements that could be modified, including, but not limited to, brand colors, brand script, logo lockup, product or packaging shape and design, brand characters and celebrity endorsements, taglines, claims, and sensory cues such as sound, smell, and taste.

To further complicate the situation, marketers usually change roles every 18-24 months. How do they create a name for themselves? By launching that breakthrough innovation, or creating that sexy new campaign everyone’s talking about? Maybe they revolutionize packaging?

Brands are being pulled in a multitude of different directions. Who is ensuring that as your brand evolves, it stays true to its roots and remains relentlessly consistent in its purpose and promise? The tension between breakthrough and familiarity is palpable.

The answer lies in your brand identity; it lies in your ability to better understand which brand assets you own and which brand elements are holding your brand back from its true growth potential.

Understanding The Power Of The Assets Within Your Brand’s Identity

A brand’s identity comprises many different elements, but not all of them have the same value. There are elements within your brand’s identity that are brand assets and they are the key to evolving your brand to create breakthrough, while ensuring you do so in a relentlessly consistent manner.

There are two qualities of a brand element that distinguish it as an asset.

First, a brand asset must be distinctive or ‘owned’ by the brand. This means that consumers unmistakably link that asset with your brand. The impact of a distinctive brand asset is that it attracts attention and drives recognition amidst the flurry of competing messages in communications or variants on shelf. Consumers see the asset and use it as a ‘mental shortcut’ to identify your brand.

Second, a brand asset must be relevant or ‘on-brand’. This means that the asset reinforces and amplifies your brand’s promise. As the asset is iterated consistently across multiple touch points, it reinforces the mental structures that consumers have associated to the rational and emotional benefits that your brand promises to deliver. This creates another ‘mental shortcut’ – one that reminds consumers of how your brand makes them feel and thus they are more likely to add it to their consideration set, pick it up off shelf, and possibly buy it.

So do you know which of the elements within your brand identity are both distinctive and relevant? Do you know which of your brand elements are assets?

How Brand Assets Drive Brand Growth

Brand Assets

Can you name the sixteen brands these assets belong to? What comes to mind when you think of these brands? Do you sense the multitude of emotions one brand asset can evoke?

How is it that a simple brand element can cue you to recognize a brand so easily? How is it that just one brand asset can immediately recall your experiences with that brand through previous usage or media you’ve been exposed to? You are able to recall stories and experiences with the brand instantaneously, without any mention of the brand itself, and this activates mental structures that are critical to driving behavior.

This process of mental availability is leveraged by the most iconic and successful brands, as they utilize sensory cues to create mental memory structures. These mental shortcuts make it easy for consumers to recognize the brand, feel a certain way, and hopefully trigger memories about the brand’s promise, that lead to the intended consumer behaviors that drive growth.

These brand elements can trigger brand recognition and emotion better than most 30 second commercials and you don’t have to spend millions of dollars in advertising.

The impact is consumers are more likely to see your brand, recognize it, pick it up, and buy it. Successful and iconic brands execute their brand assets with relentless consistency to drive brand growth.

(Answers: 1. BP  2. GE  3. Nike 4. McDonald’s  5. T-Mobile  6. Coca-Cola 7. Skype 8. Orange 9. HP 10. Cadburys  11. Heineken  12. Caterpillar 13. Harrods 14. Virgin 15. Puma 16. BMW)

The Brand Identity And Brand Asset Learning Journey

Has your organization recently undergone a brand identity and brand asset learning journey?

The benefits of doing so are that you ensure that all of your stakeholders and partners, including communication, design, and digital agencies recognize which of your assets are sacred and must not be tampered with. Further to which, these assets should be iterated across all communications, activations, and touch points with relentless consistency.

However, another important aspect of conducting brand identity learning is that it helps you uncover which brand elements are not adding value to the brand, or worse, holding it back. This provides your agency partners with clear direction on which brand elements can and should be evolved or removed to make more space for your distinctive and relevant assets. It creates freedom within a framework.

Accelerating Brand Growth Through Your Brand Assets

Marketers have two very important goals. To drive short-term business results, while also building long-term brand equity.

To drive growth, remain relevant to their consumers, and create breakthrough, marketers need to push the boundaries of their brand promise and identity. At the same time, we know that true long-term brand growth comes from a brand promise that is brought to life by remarkable ideas executed with relentless consistency. As brands evolve to create breakthrough, they need to stay true to their roots – the associations and emotions that built their brand in the first place.

Your brand is multifaceted; it impacts thousands of stakeholders across the spectrum from creatives to consumers, from marketers to media buys, from retailers to retweets. Having a well understood and remarkably consistent brand across the spectrum ensures that every touch point is maximized.

So when pushing the boundaries of brand promise and identity, how much of a push is too much? Mastering this tension is what separates true brand builders from the rest of the pack and it’s not easy, especially since every brand, its competitors, and the category itself have specific nuances.

Phil Duncan, the Chief Design Officer at P&G positioned this challenge perfectly when he said,

I tell my colleagues that it is the responsibility of brand teams to write the next chapter for the P&G book, not to write a new book. The goal is always to keep the story interesting and moving forward.

While this is far easier said than done, deepening your understanding of how hard the assets within your brand’s identity are working for your brand is the first step on this journey.

Simply email me, Derrick Daye for more about how we can help you discover the most important asset in your brand and competing brands.

The Blake Project Can Help: Accelerate Brand Growth Through Powerful Emotional Connections

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5 techniques for prioritising features (or user stories) to try out

Prioritising features

“OK, so which of the features are ‘must haves’, which are ‘should haves’ and which are ‘nice to haves’?”

“All of them are must haves.”

“All of them?”

“Yep, we absolutely MUST HAVE all these features.”

“Really? All of them?”

“Yep, all of them are MUST HAVES.”

[Blood curdling scream…] (But only in your head)

Does this scenario sound familiar to you? Hopefully like me you only screamed in your head, rather than to your product owner / business owner / tormentor.

Prioritising features is a pretty important step when designing and building any product, from websites and mobile apps to toasters and lawn mowers. You need to decide exactly what the product will do and which features to include and focus on. You need to ask difficult questions, like does the toaster really need a crumpet setting? (Hell yeah it does)

Prioritising features is pretty damn important, but it isn’t easy, at least not if you’re doing it properly. Many teams use the classic MoSCow method (‘Must haves’, ‘Should have’s and ‘Could haves’) but in my experience MoSCow doesn’t force you to work hard enough. Even if you do identify the ‘Must have’, ‘Should have’ and ‘Could have’ features what are the ‘Must have’, ‘Must haves’? Which features should you build first? Why is everything always a MUST HAVE (aaaarrrrrhhhhhh)? Whether you’re prioritising features or user stories, here are 5 prioritisation techniques that you should try out.

Buy a feature

Buy a feature

Buy a feature is a great prioritisation technique because it gets people thinking about the cost of a feature verses the benefits. The idea is really very simple. Take your features and then give them all a cost which relates to the complexity of delivering that feature. For example, 50 pounds / dollars / points for one feature, 25 for another and so on. Try to ensure that features are costed relative to one another so a feature that costs twice as much is twice as hard to deliver. If you’re working with user stories and story points then you can simply use story points as your costs.

Having costed all your features you then give your product owner / users / business owner a set budget and ask him or her to go on a feature shopping spree. You’ll want to capture the features bought and ask that all important ‘Why?’ question so that you can fully understand the buyer’s rationale.

Find out more about ‘Buy a feature’

Priority poker

Priority poker

Priority poker is not only a great prioritisation technique, but also gives you a legitimate reason to play cards at work and to generally pretend that you’re a hot shot poker player in a Vegas Casino. It’s a variation on planning poker and is played in a very similar way.

Each player is given a set of priority cards which he or she can use against a feature. Cards are typically 1 to 5, with a ‘Don’t know’ joker for when someone can’t make up their mind, or needs to know more information. You then take each feature in turn and describe it so that everyone knows what they’re being asked to prioritise. Each player must then choose a priority card for that feature and place it face down on the table. Once all the players have played a card everyone reveals their choice at the same time and discusses and agrees a priority. The real power of this technique is not only the agreed priority, but more importantly the discussion surrounding that agreement (or disagreement). By placing cards face down you also avoid the HiPPo effect – the highest paid person (or most vocal) significantly skewing the prioritises.

Find out more about priority poker

Pairwise comparison

Pairwise comparison

What are your top 10 action movies of all time? (Terminator 2 better be in there). It’s not any easy question to answer because prioritising a long list of stuff can be hard. It’s hard because you have to consider a lot of things at the same time. Which is the best film? What about the next best? What about the next, next best? The longer the list, the harder it becomes until your head hurts and you need to lie down in a dark room.

Rather than trying to size up lots of things at the same time it’s much easier to compare just two items at a time. For example, is feature A higher priority than feature B? This in a nutshell is pairwise comparison. Rather than trying to prioritise the entire list you instead split it up into lots and lots of pairs (hence the name). You compare feature A with feature B, then with feature C, feature D and so on until you’ve compared every pair of items. It sounds like a long and laborious process, but you’d be surprised at how quickly each comparison can take. Each time a feature beats it’s foe you give it a point. Tot up the points for all your features and voila, one prioritised list.

Find out more about pairwise comparison

WOW, HOW, NOW, POW prioritisation technique

Batman POW

A feature prioritisation session is often rather one dimensional. The only question asked is “What is the business value?” or “What is most important for users?”. This is a problem because features are certainly not one dimensional (apart from that one-dimension conversion feature). When comparing features you should be considering not just the benefits that a feature can bring (to both the business and users) but also the cost of delivering that feature. After all, it’s all too tempting to prioritise the game changer features that are going to cost more than the Space Shuttle to build and neglect those that are going to be relatively easy to deliver, but provide only incremental benefits. This is where the ‘Wow’, ‘How’, Now’, ‘Pow’ or (or WHNP for short) prioritisation technique comes into play.

For the ‘Wow’, ‘How’, ‘Now’, ‘Pow’ prioritisation technique you map features against a vertical axis for impact (for both users and the business), and horizontal axis for cost of delivery. You can then see which features fit into the following groups:

  • WOW features! (High impact, low cost) – These are the high impact, low cost features you should be focusing on
  • HOW features (High impact, High cost) – You should be asking how to reduce the cost of delivering these high impact but high cost features
  • NOW features (Low impact, Low cost) – You should be delivering these low cost features now to incrementally improve things
  • POW features (Low impact, High cost) – Get rid of these features with your best Batmanesque ‘Pow’ as they are high cost but low impact

Find out more about ‘WOW, HOW, NOW, POW’ prioritisation technique

Feature Top Trumps

Top Trumps card game

Do you remember playing Top Trumps card games as a kid? The thrill of shoving your higher scoring card in your opponent’s face to show them who’s boss. Top Trumps is not only a great game for children, but it’s also a great game for prioritising features. Here’s how you play it.

First you need to decide your feature Top Trump categories. This will be how you score and judge features. Feature Top Trump categories might include:

  • Business goals and desired outcomes (e.g. User retention, Usage)
  • User value (e.g. Love, Like, Loath)
  • Ease of delivery (The higher the score, the easier to deliver)
  • Design principles (e.g. Simplicity, Delightful)

You then create a Top Trump card for each feature. Each card should include the feature name, description, optional picture or sketch, scores against your Top Trump categories (out of 10) and a total score. You can then not only prioritise your features by taking the total scores, but also recreate your Top Trump playground battles by directly pitting features off against each other. Let the best feature win!

Find out more about feature Top Trumps

See also

Image credits

British Women’s Open leaderboard by Wojciech Migda
Top Trumps Prototypes by Graham Holliday

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How Stories Shape The Meaning Of Brands

How Stories Shape The Meaning Of Brands

Our senses are constantly taking in a vast amount of data, such as the words on this page, the color of C3PO, the smell from the cup of coffee on your desk, the sounds of conversations around you (which we know we shouldn’t be listening in on, but which we can’t completely ignore).

Although all this data is being taken in, it isn’t written automatically onto a memory ‘hard drive’, but gets sorted in different ways, assigned a level of importance, and only gets transferred if we really ‘need to know’ through a process called consolidation. If we suffer a system crash before consolidation, then we won’t remember any of it at all, which is sometimes good and sometimes bad.

The importance of sensory data depends on the meaning that data has for us, and specifically how well it can help us to make specific and accurate predictions about future outcomes. Put another way, prediction is all about understanding cause and effect, which is also the subject of stories.

Thus, meaning is critically linked to emotional state, social and environmental context and the brain’s reward system that powers our learning. Emotions are the ‘markers’ of importance, while con- text makes information specific enough to provide predictive power, helping the brain to learn new and better ways to navigate events (with better emotional outcomes).

Richard Restak writes about context, ‘Within the brain, things are always evaluated within a specific context’. Context is the key to meaning and the secret of the power of story. Similarly, Daniel Gilbert writes about emotion, ‘Feelings don’t just matter, they are what mattering means’, while Steven Pinker has written, ‘Emotions are mechanisms that set the brain’s highest goals’.

Stories are powerful ways for brands to transmit meaning, containing context, action and emotional reward (cause, behavior and effect). A story contains all the information the brain needs to make that information useful in making predictions. The meaning of a story is not necessarily diminished by the realness of the events. Imaginary stories are still powerful tools for mental simulation of ‘scenarios’ that help the brain to increase its predictive powers, and many have argued that one of the greatest gifts of humanity is the ability to create such mental simulations in order to imagine situations and events that have never been experienced.

This is how children learn from fairytales and stories. For example, in many fairytales, children are thrown into a world where their parents are no longer there to help them. The simulation of such stories helps us imagine a world where we cannot rely on our parents to help us, and have to learn to look after ourselves. Arguably, the common theme of the majority of fairytales, myths and legends, is the story of growing up. This is what Joseph Campbell called the ‘monomyth’, which he elaborated with examples from cultures all around the world.

Story allowed early humans to imagine dangerous experiences without having to live through them. They have become a useful way to explore our own minds and the minds of others.

Story And Myth

Joseph Campbell and others have argued that the monomyth or ‘hero’s journey’ is a common pattern found in numerous myth across cultures and time (he borrowed the term from James Joyce’s Finnegan’s Wake). The pattern consists of fundamental structures and stages, which he described in The Hero with a Thousand Faces in this way: ‘A hero ventures forth from the world of common day into a region of supernatural wonder: fabulous forces are there encountered and a decisive victory is won: the hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on his fellow man’.

The narratives of Buddha, Moses and Jesus Christ have all been described in terms of the monomyth, as well as epic stories such as Gilgamesh and The Odyssey. Campbell argued that classic myths from all cultures followed this basic pattern. You can see a depiction of the hero’s journey in Figure 5.1 below.
The ‘monomyth’ is a universal ‘archetype’. Campbell’s writings have been very influential on Hollywood, most notably with George Lucas and Star Wars. For example, the plot of Star Wars follows precisely the flow of the monomyth, as you can see here:

The Hero’s Journey Star Wars
The hero exists in an ordinary world Luke Skywalker is a bored farm boy, dreaming of the space academy
He gets a call to adventure Luke sees the distress hologram from Princess Leia
He almost refuses Luke delivers the message and decides to go home
The wise elder (Guru) advises him to heed the call Obi-Wan advises Luke to come with him
He enters the special world Luke follows Obi-Wan to the cantina
Where he encounters tests and discovers allies and enemies Luke meets Han Solo, they escape from imperial stormtroopers, jump into hyperspace and emerge in
a meteor storm
He enters the inmost cave Luke and friends are pulled into the Death Star
Where he encounters the supreme ordeal Luke and friends are trapped in the ‘trash masher’ and Obi-Wan is killed by Darth Vader
He seizes the sword Luke gets the plan to the Death Star
Takes the road back Luke and friends are pursued by Darth Vader
Almost dies, but is resurrected Despite being wounded, Luke hits the spot and destroys the Death Star
And returns with the elixir Luke learns not to rely on machines, but to ‘trust the force’ and is transformed into a hero

Although he has many followers, some believe that the monomyth is too simplistic in its interpretation of archetypal stories. Most famously, Christopher Booker spent many years writing The Seven Basic Plots, which outline seven archetypal story structures, including comedy and tragedy that go back to Aristotle’s Poetics. The seven are summarized here:

Archetypal Plot Examples
Killing the monster Jack and the Beanstalk, Little Red Riding Hood, James Bond
Rags to riches Aladdin, Cinderella, Shrek
Quest The Odyssey, Indiana Jones, Star Trek
Voyage and return Treasure Island, Peter Rabbit, The Wizard of Oz
Comedy Lysistrata, Pride and Prejudice, Some Like It Hot
Tragedy Hamlet, Madame Bovary, American Beauty
Rebirth The Frog Prince, Beauty and the Beast, The Lion King

Joseph Campbell was a student of Carl Jung who popularized the idea of archetypes more than anyone else in the last century, although the idea goes back to antiquity. Plato’s ideal forms and ‘allegory of the cave’ have much in common with ideas of archetypes. Campbell wrote that ‘the concept of archetypes was borrowed by Jung from classic sources, including Cicero, Pliny and Augustine. Adolf Bastian called them “Elementary Ideas”. In Sanskrit, they were called “subjectively known forms”; and in Australia, they were known as the “Eternal Ones of the Dream”.’

Jung wrote extensively about such archetypes as the anima, animus, self, shadow and persona as different aspects of human psychology. He also wrote about the more mythical and cultural aspects of archetypes like the mother, child and trickster.

As well as stories and metaphors, the word archetype often refers to characters that have common currency across cultures and time. Jung himself defined archetypes as, ‘Forms or images of a collective nature which occur practically all over the earth as constituents of myths and at the same time as individual products of unconscious origin’.

The Oxford English Dictionary defines archetype as, ‘A symbol, theme, setting or character-type that recurs in different times and places in myth, literature, folklore, dreams and rituals so frequently or prominently as to suggest that it embodies some essential element of “universal” human experience.’ My preferred definition of archetype comes from Jon Howard-Spink who wrote. ‘An archetype is a universally familiar character or situation that transcends time, place, culture, gender and age. It represents an eternal truth.’

Contributed to Branding Strategy Insider by: Neil Gains, excerpted from his book, Brand Essense: Using sense, symbol and story to design brand identity, with permission from Kogan Page publishing.

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The Client, with Apologies to Edgar Allen Poe

Open wide I flicked the app, when, with many a peeved rap,
Up there popped a stately client of the Web’s days of yore;
Not the least greeting made he; nor any pleasantry gave he;
But with mien of lord or lady, perched above my Mac’s App Store—
Perched above a GIF of Nielsen just above my Mac’s App Store—
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

Then his hooded face beguiling my tattered psyche into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance he wore,
“Though your clothes are dark and pagan, you,” I said, “have found a haven,
Worthy, smart, and cherished client, welcome here since days of yore—
Tell me how I might assist you, with what tricky task or chore?”
Quoth the client then “Explore.”

Though I marveled from his ungainly cowl to hear this need so plainly,
Though, in truth, it little meaning—little relevancy bore;
For I cannot help but feeling that no designer was ever being
Being blessed with clients saying what they want and nothing more,
Client or colleague on the window up above my Mac’s App Store,
With the requirement ‘Explore.’

But the client sitting lonely in his window, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that one word did he outpour.
Nothing further then he uttered—from his cowl was yet uttered,
Till I scarcely more than muttered “Other clients have gone before—
On the morrow, he will leave me, as my fee has gone before,
With his requirement ‘Explore.’”

Startled, from my reverie, broken by his reply so aptly spoken,
I summoned my reply, as rapidly I paced the floor
“I feel,” said I, “that navigation—tested well through eye fixation—
Would aid with mental model formation and bring your content to the fore—
Till the silence stretched onward and I admit
I almost swore.

But the client still beguiling my jangled nerves into smiling,
Straight I took my Sharpie out from it’s customary drawer;
Then, upon the parchment tracing, an app with clear navigation
As I toiled for the duration and let my imagination soar
To meet the client’s need: Explore.

As I sat over detail stressing, but no sign of his impressing,
To the client whose baleful eyes now burned into my bosom’s core;
As I sat there, app designing, all the elements aligning,
Navigation to groups assigning, till each one could take no more,
But the user journey streamlining, primary persona to the fore,
Would they truly then explore?

Then I felt the mood grow tense, I feared I might have caused offence
From some requirement unknown to me before.
“Client,” I cried, “by thy decree—perhaps on something we can agree
Tell me—tell me what thou means by this ‘Explore;’
Does my design fulfill the requirement any more?”
Quoth the client then “Explore.”

And the client, never shifting, still is sitting, still is sitting,
On the GIF of Nielsen, just above my Mac’s App Store;
And his eyes have all the feeling of a demon that is dreaming,
And his baleful gaze a-gleaming throws his contempt out before;
As each concept from my Sharpie is met with contempt as before;
I shall never understand—‘Explore!’ 



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